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The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali - Book 1 - Table of Contents
Book 1 - The Problem of Union

1. AUM. The following instruction concerneth the Science of Union.

2. This Union (or Yoga) is achieved through the subjugation of the psychic nature, and the restraint of the chitta (or mind).

3. When this has been accomplished, the Yogi knows himself as he is in reality.

4. Up till now the inner man has identified himself with his forms and with their active modifications.

5. The mind states are five, and are subject to pleasure or pain; they are painful or not painful.

6. These modifications (activities) are correct knowledge, incorrect knowledge, fancy, passivity (sleep) and memory.

7. The basis of correct knowledge is correct perception, correct deduction, and correct witness (or accurate evidence).

8. Incorrect knowledge is based upon perception of the form and not upon the state of being.

9. Fancy rests upon images which have no real existence.

10. Passivity (sleep) is based upon the quiescent state of the vrittis (or upon the non-perception of the senses.)

11. Memory is the holding on to that which has been known.

12. The control of these modifications of the internal organ, the mind, is to be brought about through tireless endeavor and through non-attachment.

13. Tireless endeavor is the constant effort to restrain the modifications of the mind.

14. When the object to be gained is sufficiently valued, and the efforts towards its attainment are persistently followed without intermission, then the steadiness of the mind (restraint of the vrittis) is secured.

15. Non-attachment is freedom from longing for all objects of desire, either earthly or traditional, either here or hereafter.

16. The consummation of this non-attachment results in an exact knowledge of the spiritual man when liberated from the qualities or gunas.

17. The consciousness of an object is attained by concentration upon its fourfold nature: the form, through examination; the quality (or guna), through discriminative participation; the purpose, through inspiration (or bliss) ; and the soul, through indentification.

18. A further stage of samadhi is achieved when, through one pointed thought, the outer activity is quieted. In this stage, the chitta is responsive only to subjective impressions.

19. The samadhi just described passes not beyond the bound of the phenomenal world; it passes not beyond the Gods, and those concerned with the concrete world.

20. Other yogins achieve samadhi and arrive at a discrimination of pure Spirit through belief, followed by energy, memory, meditation and right perception.

21. The attainment of this state (spiritual consciousness) is rapid for those whose will is intensely alive.

22. Those who employ the will likewise differ, for its use may be intense, moderate, or gentle. In respect to the attainment of true spiritual consciousness there is yet another way.

23. By intense devotion to Ishvara, knowledge of Ishvara is gained.

24. This Ishvara is the soul, untouched by limitation, free from karma, and desire.

25. In Ishvara, the Gurudeva, the germ of all knowledge expands into infinity.

26. Ishvara, the Gurudeva, being unlimited by time conditions, is the teacher of the primeval Lords.

27. The Word of Ishvara is AUM (or OM). This is the Pranava.

28. Through the sounding of the Word and through reflection upon its meaning, the Way is found.

29. From this comes the realization of the Self (the soul) and the removal of all obstacles.

30. The obstacles to soul cognition are bodily disability, mental inertia, wrong questioning, carelessness, laziness, lack of dispassion, erroneous perception, inability to achieve concentration, failure to hold the meditative attitude when achieved.

31. Pain, despair, misplaced bodily activity and wrong direction (or control) of the life currents are the results of the obstacles in the lower psychic nature.

32. To overcome the obstacles and their accompaniments, the intense application of the will to some one truth (or principle) is required.

33. The peace of the chitta (or mind stuff) can be brought about through the practice of sympathy, tenderness, steadiness of purpose, and dispassion in regard to pleasure or pain, or towards all forms of good or evil.

34. The peace of the chitta is also brought about by the regulation of the prana or life breath.

35. The mind can be trained to steadiness through those forms of concentration which have relation to the sense perceptions.

36. By meditation upon Light and upon Radiance, knowledge of the Spirit can be reached and thus peace can be achieved.

37. The chitta is stabilized and rendered free from illusion as the lower nature is purified and no longer indulged.

38. Peace (steadiness of the chitta) can be reached through meditation on the knowledge which dreams give.

39. Peace can also be reached through concentration upon that which is dearest to the heart.

40. Thus his realization extends from the infinitely small to the infinitely great, and from annu (the atom or speck) to atma (or spirit) his knowledge is perfected.

41. To him whose vrittis (modifications of the substance of the mind) are entirely controlled, there eventuates a state of identity with, and similarity to that which is realized. The knower, knowledge and the field of knowledge become one, just as the crystal takes to itself the colors of that which is reflected in it.

42. When the perceiver blends the word, the idea (or meaning) and the object, this is called the mental condition of judicial reasoning.

43. Perception without judicial reasoning is arrived at when the memory no longer holds control, the word and the object are transcended and only the idea is present.

44. The same two processes of concentration, with and without judicial action of the mind, can be applied also to things subtle.

45. The gross leads into the subtle and the subtle leads in progressive stages to that state of pure spiritual being called Pradhana.

46. All this constitutes meditation with seed.

47. When this supercontemplative state is reached, the Yogi acquires pure spiritual realization through the balanced quiet of the chitta (or mind stuff).

48. His perception is now unfailingly exact (or his mind reveals only the Truth).

49. This particular perception is unique and reveals that which the rational mind (using testimony, inference and deduction) cannot reveal.

50. It is hostile to, or supersedes all other impressions.

51. When this state of perception is itself also restrained (or superseded), then is pure Samadhi achieved.

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